Muchammad Soleh, Wismu Sunarmodo, Ahmad Maryanto


LAPAN has developed remote sensing data collection by using a pushbroom linescan imager camera sensor mounted on LSA (Lapan Surveillance Aircraft). The position accuracy and orientation system for LSA applications are required for Direct Georeferencing and depend on the accuracy of off-the-shelf integrated GPS/inertial system, which used on the camera sensor. This research aims to give the accuracy requirement of Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) sensor and GPS to improve the accuracy of the measurement results using direct georeferencing technique. Simulations were performed to produce geodetic coordinates of longitude, latitude and altitude for each image pixel in the imager pushbroom one array detector, which has been geometrically corrected. The simulation results achieved measurement accuracies for mapping applications with Ground Sample Distance (GSD) or spatial resolution of 0,6 m of the IMU parameter (pitch, roll and yaw) errors about 0.1; 0.1; and 0.1 degree respectively, and the error of GPS parameters (longitude and latitude) about 0.00002 and 0.2 degree. The results are expected to be a reference for a systematic geometric correction to image data pushbroom linescan imager that would be obtained by using LSA spacecraft.


direct georeferencing; pushbroom imager; systematic geometric correction; LSA

Full Text:



ASPRS, (2015), ASPRS Positional Accuracy Standards for Digital Geospatial Data, Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing 81(3): A1–A26.

GAEL Consultant, (2004), SPOT Satellite Geometry Handbook Edition 1, issue 1 revision 4 France, January 2004.

Jacobsen K., (2002), Calibration aspects in direct georeferencing of frame imagery. International Archives of Photogrammetry Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, 34(1): 82-88.

Jacobsen K., Helge W., (2004), Dependencies and Problems of Direct Sensor Orientation. Proceedings of ISPRS Congress Commission III.

Maryanto A, Widijatmiko N, Sunarmodo W, Soleh M, Arief R., (2016), Development of Pushbroom Airborne Camera System Using Multispectrum Line Scan Industrial Camera. International Journal of Remote Sensing and Earth Sciences (IJReSES), 13(1): 27-38.

Mostafa MMR, Hutton J, Lithopous E., (2001), Aircraft Direct Georeferencing of Frame Imagery: An Error Budget, The 3rd International Symposium on Mobile Mapping Technology, Cairo, Egypt, January 3-5, 2001

Müller R, Lehner M, Müller R, Reinartz P., Schroeder M, Vollmer B., (2012), A Program for Direct Georeferencing Of Aircraft and Spacecraft Line Scanner Images, DLR (German Aerospace Center) Wessling, Germany. Pecora 15/Land Satellite Information IV/ISPRS Commission I/FI EO S 2002 Conference Proceedings, Volume XXXIV Part 1, Denver, USA, 2002.

Poli D., (2005), Modelling of Spacecraft Linear Array Sensors, Dissertation, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich.

Rizaldy A, Firdaus W., (2012), Direct Georeferencing: A New Standard In Photogrammetry For High Accuracy Mapping, International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, 2012.

Schroth R., (2004), Direct Geo-Referencing in Practical Applications. Proceedings of ISPRS WG1/5 Workshop about Theory, Technology and Realities of Inertial/GPS Sensor Orientation, Castelldefels.


  • There are currently no refbacks.