NFn Suwarsono, Indah Prasasti, Jalu Tejo Nugroho, Jansen Sitorus, Djoko Triyono


The increasing volcanic activity of Anak Krakatau volcano has raised concerns about a major disaster in the area around the Sunda Strait. The objective of the research is to fuse Landsat-8 OLI (Operational Land Imager) and Sentinel-1 TOPS (Terrain Observation with Progressive Scans), an integration of SAR and optic remote sensing data, in observing the lava flow deposits resulted from Anak Krakatau eruption during the middle 2018 eruption. RGBI and the Brovey transformation were conducted to merge (fuse) the optical and SAR data.  The results showed that optical and SAR data fusion sharpened the appearance of volcano morphology and lava flow deposits. The regions are often constrained by cloud cover and volcanic ash, which occurs at the time of the volcanic eruption.  The RGBI-VV and Brovey RGB-VV methods provide better display quality results in revealing the morphology of volcanic cone and lava deposits. The entire slopes of Anak Krakatau Volcano, with a radius of about 1 km from the crater is an area prone to incandescent lava and pyroclastic falls. The direction of the lava flow has the potential to spread in all directions. The fusion method of optical Landsat-8 and Sentinel-1 SAR data can be used continuously in monitoring the activity of Anak Krakatau volcano and other volcanoes in Indonesia both in cloudy and clear weather conditions.


lava flow; Anak Krakatau; data fusion; Landsat-8; Sentinel-1 SAR

Full Text:



Agustan, Kimata F., Pamitro YE, et al., (2012), Understanding the 2007–2008 eruption of Anak Krakatau Volcano by combining remote sensing technique and seismic data. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 14:73-82.

Chavez Jr. PR, (1996), Image-based atmospheric corrections - revisited and improved. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing 62(9):1025-1036.

Deplus C., Bonvalot S., Dahrin D., et al, (1995), Inner structure of the Krakatau volcanic complex (Indonesia) from gravity and bathymetry data. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 64(1–2):23–52.

Dörries M., (2003), Global science: the eruption of Krakatau. Endeavour 27(3), 113–116.

Francis PW, (1985), The origin of the 1883 Krakatau tsunamis. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 25(3–4): 349–363.

Ibs-von Seht M., (2008), Detection and identification of seismic signals recorded at Krakatau volcano (Indonesia) using artificial neural networks. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 176(4): 448–456.

Irons JR, Dwyer JL, and Barsi JA, (2012), The next Landsat satellite: The Landsat Data Continuity Mission. Remote Sensing of Environment 122:11-21.

Jensen JR, (2005), Introductory digital image processing, a remote sensing perspective. Pearson Prentice Hall. New Jersey.

Khaleghi B., Khamis A., Karray FO, et al., (2013), Multisensor data fusion: A review of the state-of-the-art. Inform. Fusion (14)1:28–44.

Luo RC, Yih CC, and Lan Su K., (2002), Multisensor fusion and integration: Approaches, applications, and future research directions. IEEE Sensors J. 2(2):107–119.

Martinez NY, Iraola PP, Gonzales FR, et al., (2016), Interferometric processing of Sentinel-1 TOPS Data. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 54(4):2220-2233.

Periasamy S., (2018), Significance of dual polarimetric synthetic aperture radar in biomass retrieval: An attempt on Sentinel-1. Remote Sensing of Environment 217: 537-549.

Rampino MR, and Self S., (1982), Historic eruptions of Tambora (1815), Krakatau (1883), and Agung (1963), their stratospheric aerosols, and climatic impact. Quaternary Research 18 (2): 127–143.

Reulke R., Giaquinto,G., Giovenco et al., (2013), Optics and radar image fusion based on image quality assessment. 2013 Seventh International Conference on Sensing Technology, IEEE: 690-696.

Sutawidjaja IS, (1997), The activities of Anak Krakatau volcano during the years of 1992–1996. Annuals of the Disaster Prevention Research Institute 40: 13–22.

Sutawidjaja IS, (2006), Pertumbuhan Gunung Api Anak Krakatau setelah letusan katastrofis 1883. Jurnal Geologi Indonesia 1(3): 143-153.

Torres R., Snoeij P., Geudtner D., et al., (2012), GMES Sentinel-1 mission, Remote Sensing of Environment 120: 9–24.

Wald L., (1999), Some terms of reference in data fusion. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 37(3): 1190–1193.

Zanter K. (Ed)., (2015), Landsat 8 (L8) data users handbook, Version 1. Sioux Falls, South Dakota: Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.


  • There are currently no refbacks.