Zaki Hilman, Asep Saepuloh, Very Susanto


Gas emission in volcanic areas is one of the features that can be used for geothermal exploration and to monitor volcanic activity. Volcanic gases are usually emitted in permeable zones in geothermal fields. The use of thermal infrared radiometers (TIR) onboard of advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometers (ASTER) aims to detect thermal anomalies at the ground surface related to gas emissions from permeable zones. The study area is located around Bandung Basin, West Java (Indonesia), particularly the Papandayan and Domas craters. This area was chosen because of the easily detected land surface temperature (LST) following emissivity and vegetation corrections (Tcveg). The ASTER TIR images used in this study were acquired by direct night and day observation, including observations made using visible to near-infrared radiometers (VNIR). Field measurements of volcanic gases composed of SO2 and CO2 were performed at three different zones for each of the craters. The measured SO2 concentration was found to be constant over time, but CO2 concentration showed some variation in the craters. We obtained results suggesting that SO2 gas measurements and Tcveg are highly correlated. At Papandayan crater, the SO2 gas concentration was 334.34 ppm and the Tcveg temperature was 35.67 °C,  results that are considered highly anomalous. The same correlation was also found at Domas crater, which showed an increased SO2 gas concentration of 35.39 ppm located at a high-anomaly Tcveg of 30.65 °C. Therefore, the ASTER TIR images have potential to identify volcanic gases as related to high Tcveg.

Full Text:



Abrams, M., Hook, S., & Ramachandran, B. (2002). ASTER Users Handbook (2nd ed.). Pasadena, California: NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Chalik, C. A. (2019). Karakteristik Anomali Suhu Permukaan Tanah Berdasarkan Citra ASTER Terkoreksi Vegetasi di Daerah Panasbumi (Studi Kasus Lapangan Panasbumi Patuha) [Characteristics of soil surface temperature anomalies based on ASTER image corrected vegetation in geothermal areas (case study of the Patuha geothermal field)] (Thesis), Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia.

Granados, H. D., & Jenkins, S. (2015). Extreme volcanic risks 1: Mexico City. In J. F. Schroeder & P. Papale (Eds.), Volcanic Hazards, Risks, and Disasters (pp. 315–354). doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-396453-3.00013-7

Hilman, Z., Saepuloh, A., Chalik, C. A., & Heriawan, M. N. (2020). Identifying upflow zone based on thermal infrared (TIR) sensor and field measurements at volcanic field. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 417, 012011. doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/417/1/012011

Hooper, A., Prata, F., & Sigmundsson, F. (2012). Remote sensing of volcanic hazards and their precursors. Proceedings of the IEEE, 100(10), 2908–2930. doi: 10.1109/JPROC.2012.2199269

Jimenez-Munoz, J.-C. & Sobrino, J. (2010). A single-channel algorithm for land-surface temperature retrieval from ASTER data. Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, IEEE 7, 176–179. doi: 10.1109/LGRS.2009.2029534

Moeck, I. S. (2014). Catalog of geothermal play types based on geologic controls. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 37, 867–882. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2014.05.032

Nasution, A., Kartabinata, M. N., Sutamingsih, E., & Hadisantono, R. (2004). Geology, age dating and geochemistry of the Tangkuban Parahu Geothermal Area, West Java, Indonesia. Journal of the Geothermal Research Society of Japan 26, 285–303. doi: org/10.11367/grsj1979.26.285

Nugroho, U. C. & Domiri, D. D. (2017). Identification of land surface temperature distribution of geothermal area in Ungaran Mount by using Landsat 8 imagery. International Journal of Remote Sensing and Earth Sciences, 12(2), 143–150. doi: org/10.30536/j.ijreses.2015.v12.a2708

Oppenheimer, C., , R. (2011). Sulfur degassing from volcanoes: Source conditions,

surveillance, plume chemistry, and earth system impacts. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 73, 363-421. doi: 10.2138/rmg.2011.73.13

Raharjo, P. P. (2017). Understanding and identifying natural hazard for Bandung City preparedness and mitigation against natural disaster. MATEC Web Conf. 103, 07011. doi: 10.1051/matecconf/201710307011

Saepuloh, A., Haeruddin, H., Heriawan, M. N., Kubo, T., Koike, K., & Malik, D. (2018). Application of lineament density extracted from dual orbit of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images to detecting fluids paths in the Wayang Windu geothermal field (West Java, Indonesia). Geothermics 72, 145–155. doi: 10.1016/j.geothermics.2017.11.010


  • There are currently no refbacks.