Amalia Nurlatifah


West Nusa Tenggara is part of the Indonesian Maritime Continent region whose weather conditions are heavily influenced by the dynamics of the Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean. One of the dynamics that influenced the rainfall condition was the ENSO phenomenon (El Nino and La Nina). This study analyzes rainfall response in West Nusa Tenggara to ENSO phenomenon. The research data was taken from TRMM 3B43 with a monthly temporal resolution and 0.25o spatial resolution. Based on the analysis, it was found that El Nino phenomenon characterized by the heating of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in Nino 3.4 had an impact on decreasing rainfall in NTB. In contrast, the La Nina phenomenon characterized by the cooling of SST in Nino 3.4 tends to have an impact on increasing rainfall in NTB. Nevertheless, the value of the increase and decrease of Nino 3.4 SST anomaly and rainfall in NTB itself is not linear. This is probably due to the magnitude of the ENSO phenomenon only regulating rainfall changes only, not regulating how far, how strong, or how much rainfall is reduced or increased due to the influence of the ENSO phenomenon. This is evidenced by the small correlation coefficient between Nino 3.4 SST anomaly and rainfall in NTB where the strongest value only reached -0.4 in the JJA season. In the JJA season, the correlation coefficient of Nino 3.4 SST Anomaly and rainfall in NTB tend to be negative and strongest when compared to other seasons. This is probably due to the spatial coherence of NTB rainfall in the JJA season better than the other season. Spatially, almost all areas in NTB in El Nino month experience a decrease in rainfall. In contrast, almost all areas in NTB in the month of La Nina experience an increase in rainfall. The smallest decrease or increase in rainfall during El Nino or La Nina takes place in the southwestern of Sumbawa Island. That means, the influence of the ENSO phenomenon in this region tends to be weak.


El Nino; La Nina; NTB Rainfall; trmm 3B43

Full Text:



Ashok K, Guan Z, Yamagata T. 2003. A look at the relationship between the ENSO and the Indian Ocean Dipole. Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan. 81 (1): 41-56.

Mulyana E. 2002. Hubungan antara ENSO dengan variasi curah hujan di Indonesia. Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi Modifikasi Cuaca. 3(1):1-4.

Mulyana E. 2002. Pengaruh dipole mode terhadap curah hujan di Indonesia. Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi Modifikasi Cuaca. 3(1): 39-43.

Narulita I. 2017. Pengaruh ENSO dan IOD pada variabilitas curah hujan di DAS Cerucuk, Pulau Belitung. Jurnal Tanah dan Iklim. 41(1): 45-60.

Setyawardhana H dan Susandi A. 2015. Proyeksi awal musim di Jawa Berbasis hasil downscaling Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM). Jurnal Sains Dirgantara. 13 (1): 1-14.

¬¬¬Tjasyono B, Lubis A, Juaeni I, Ruminta, Harijono SWB. 2008. Dampak variasi temperatur Samudera Pasifik dan Hindia ekuator terhadap curah hujan di Indonesia. Jurnal Sains Dirgantara. 5(2): 83-95.

As-Syakur AR, Tanaka T, Osawa T, Mahendra MS. 2013. Indonesian rainfall variability observation using TRMM multi-satellite data. International Journal of Remote Sensing. 0 (0): 1-16.

Fleming K, Awange JL, Kuhn M, Featherstone WE. 2011. Evaluating the TRMM 3B43 monthly precipitation product using gridded raingauge data over Australia. Journal Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic. 61 (1):171-184.

Mehta AV and Yang S. 2008. Precipitation climatology over Mediterranean Basin from ten

years of TRMM measurements. Advanced Geosciences, 17. 87–91.

[GES DISC]Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center. 2017. Readme Document for the Tropical Rainfall Measurment Mission (TRMM) Version 7. Diakses pada 2018 Maret 28.

Ramage C (1971) : Monsoon Meteorology. International Geophysics Series, vol. 15. San Diego, CA: Academic Press

Hamada, J., Yamanaka, M., Matsumoto, J., Fukao, S., Winarso, P., Sribimawati, P. (2002): Spatial and Temporal Variations of the Rainy Season over Indonesia and their Link to ENSO. 80 巻 (2002) 2 号 p. 285-310.

Hendon, H. (2003):Indonesian Rainfall Variability: Impacts of ENSO and Local Air–Sea Interaction. American Meteorology Society,<1775:IRVIOE>2.0.CO;2

Haylock, M., McBride, J. (2001): Spatial Coherence and Predictability of Indonesian Wet Season Rainfall. Ametsoc Journal.<3882:SCAPOI>2.0.CO;2

Barnston, A. (2012): Skill of Real-Time Seasonal ENSO Model Predictions during 2002–11: Is Our Capability Increasing?. Ametsoc Journal.


  • There are currently no refbacks.